In my observation there are four discrete processes the student goes through when they process text. For the struggling reader, the first step is figuring out where the reading process is breaking down. Generally in my experience that will be in (1) and (3). And usually when there’s problems with (3) the phonics have not been nailed down one-second-response tight. The “word caller” has not mastered (4) and the child with a fluency problem has trouble with (2).
Another issue: The struggling reader perceives that he or she is falling behind and gets discouraged. It’s important to make sure that the child receives emotional support in order to continue. I always find it helpful to remind all students that around 4th grade a lot of kids stop trying so hard and at that time it is possible for those who were lagging to catch up and pass kids who learned more quickly. It’s a kind of tortoise and hare effect, and yes, it really does happen.