- Phonics Instruction: Make or buy cards of the 70 Orton-Gillingham phonograms (the letters and groups of letters that make sounds in English) and the discrete sounds each phoneme can make. Teach the phonograms by holding up the card, showing the letter or set of letters, saying the sound(s) that phonogram makes, and having the student recite the sounds. Once the student(s) know the phonograms orally, teach them to write them as you say them. Teach this skill to mastery of all the phonograms.
- Phonemic awareness: Teach students to break words into their component sounds. Start with simple three-letter words such as “dog” (d-o-g) and cat. Have the students say each sound in the word separately. As they master the simplest words, go on to harder words. Remember to listen for sounds, not letters (super: s-oo-p-er, five letters but four sounds.)Teach them to clap syllables and then teach them to segment the syllables in order.
- Blending: Write a word on the board. Say “sound” and point to a letter. The student says the sound. Then point to the next letter and do the same. When the student has said all the sounds, say “blend,” and run your finger across all the letters. “Blend” is the cue for them to say the word. If they don’t get the word right, do the drill again. If the students are slow at developing this skill, you can scaffold by using word families (words with different beginnings but the same ending) to reinforce the skill.
- Read and track: Have a book for every student doing the exercise and for yourself. Tell the students to put their finger on the first word. Read the passage and have the student(s) put their finger on the word as you read. They may read chorally (all together) or may listen to you or to a tape, but their finger must follow along with the spoken text.
- Scaffolded reading: The text is at the right level for scaffolded reading if the student is getting more than 9 words out of 10 correct. If he is not, use easier text or go back to steps one to three. Once the student can blend and track text, find a passage of text or a book made of simple words you believe the student should be able to sound out. Give the student the passage and tell him to read it. If he is stuck, point to the word and say “sound it out.” If he can’t, give the initial sound. If he still can’t, supply the word and go on. If the student miscues (reads one word wrong in a sentence) at the end of the sentence, ask, “Is that right? Read it again.” Have the student go back over the sentence and find their error.
- Dictation: Have sentences of words the students know how to spell. Give the student a pencil and paper. Say the sentence. Repeat if needed until the student has written it down. Give the student a colored pencil and show the correct writing of the sentence. Have the student correct their own work.
- Teacher Review of Independent Reading: Once the student can independently read a text and think about text at their reading level, allow students to read self-selected books and write reports or make drawings to report back to the teacher on what they’ve read.
It happens in the best of classrooms. The instruction is delivered and the bulk of the class is moving forward. But one, or two, or three or four students aren’t getting the material.
The steps for the teacher at this point are several. If the reason for the lack of movement seems to be academic, it’s pretty simple:
- Use or create an interpretive assessment to break down the process you are trying to teach and figure out at what point the student is “not getting it.” In primary this could be things like counting, phonics, knowing how to break words into sounds, listening and following instructions, or listening comprehension (following a story’s details and creating meaning of the words).
- Use small group instruction to reteach those skills at a level the student can practice them.
- Check back in two to three weeks and see if the student is improving. Go through this process repeatedly all year long.
But what if the reasons the student is not moving are more holistic: attitude or willingness problems. These problems have affected most students I have seen with learning gaps. For these students, the most important interventions are in terms of personal behavior and relationships. These interventions are administered all day long at appropriate times
4. Full class intervention: Teach the routines! When students know how to get in line exactly, they generally do it right. If they are confused, there’s room for error and disruption. Break each routine down into steps and teach the steps.
5. Praise good work and give the praise to the ones who struggle as soon as they demonstrate success.
6. Individual Interventions: If the student is off-task, a change in seating, frequent encouragement, and recognition of success are some of the steps to take may help.
7. Put the name of the struggling students on a card near your instructional space (writeboard or Smartboard) and call on those children most frequently using differentiated questions that they can answer. Provide scaffolding if needed. Continue daily.
8. If the student is immersed in the social life of the class and won’t focus on the work, a two-minute daily one on one conference and the teacher’s reassertion of her commitment to the student will often help. Make yourself a social support and the student may become less peer-dependent.
9. If the student is defiant and unwilling, it may be necessary to discuss the matter with the parents, first on the phone. For more severe cases, if behavior doesn’t improve, the teacher may request the parents to come to the building. And if that doesn’t work, a conference with teacher, parent, student and administration has helped. These interventions are time consuming but as long as they are always motivated by the fact that the student needs to learn, I have found parents to be concerned and cooperative.
Have I covered it all? Fellow teachers, what do you do when the student isn’t progressing?
Next week: More on this topic: Practical (and classical) reading interventions for primary.
In which I explain why the class’s reading scores aren’t quite what I would have hoped … but that at the same time, they’re better than I should have been able to expect … I would argue that the classical methods (phonics drills, class recitation, grammar) I am using with the class had a very positive effect in the face of several difficult situations.
It can be hard being a teacher, when you’re judged by data. The above reading chart shows that the class on average gained a year in reading skills . That is the expectation of administration, and it has been met. However, this interpretation does not fully reflect the situation … my class had a superlative year! If you look at the data in more depth, you would find that ten of the students gained at a 1.5 pace (learning 1.5 months of reading per month of enrolled time) most of the rest gained a year, and two students gained only 6 months, despite all efforts.
Some factors not reflected in istation’s Summary graph …
- Approximately 18 students left and entered the class, many arriving and then again leaving midyear. Only nine remained all year. This is an incredible level of mobility, which stresses everyone.
- Several of the students who left were some of the higher readers.
- At Christmas, four new immigrant children, one of which knew no English, entered the class with very low reading scores. By May, all of these had made a fast rate of progress, gaining 49 points, 27 points, 19 points, and 17 points, where 14 points is a year, in four months.
- The class has at this time six children who have exhibited severe behavior (I began the year with nine). Nevertheless, learning has continued at what I can only call a rapid pace despite various distractions (fellow teachers you know what I am talking about).
Overall, I am proud of our results. At the end of the year, in running record tests, 8 of the children are on level for second grade, eight are six months or less behind, and four are further than 6 months behind. Having begun with only two who were on grade level in September, that is pretty darn good!
I can remember when I was in school an important part of the math curriculum was sheets of math facts. We needed to do 100 of them in 5 minutes to show mastery. The structure of our work on math facts was simple: in first grade, you mastered addition facts, in second; subtraction; in third, multiplication, and in fourth, division.
Today in the midst of complicated curriculum and math lessons that include five distinct steps, it would seem that more and more students do not know their math facts. And I think the reason is simple: When I look in our state curriculum objectives I do not find math facts at all, let alone an expectation of mastery such as 100 facts in five minutes.
Before the calculator was ubiquitous, knowing math facts was critical for doing such chores as balancing your checkbook. But just because we have calculators doesn’t mean that math facts are unimportant. Math facts practice improves mental agility. Last year when I was in fourth grade my partner teacher complained heartily about the fact that there were students who counted on their fingers. And students who didn’t know their multiplication facts are in real trouble when it came to long multiplication, not to mention other processes.
This leads me to return to the conviction I started with in home school: The students must learn their math facts! It is not going to go away because of calculators or because their mastery was not listed in state teaching objectives. Here are some resources you can use to help practice:
In the spring, it can be hard to keep the class engaged. Sometimes these days they’re sitting on the carpet and I’m hard pressed to get the requisite 8 out of 10 to listen (8 out of ten was the shorthand when I began teaching for determine if the class is engaged.) So it was, yesterday in the early afternoon, when I was trying to get them ready to go into their independent work stations and a girl in the front was staring at my foot. I moved the foot over. Her eyes moved with it. I moved the foot back. Her head turned.
I looked down at the foot. Loafer and no socks. I began to feel nervous. What was she looking at? I told myself to ignore it.
That’s when she reached out to try to touch it.
I broke down and stopped telling the Ruby Group that today they were in the Listening Center and asked her point blank, “Daisy, what is it that’s so interesting about my foot?”
She looked up and said with complete composure and certainty, “Mrs. C, you are almost old.”
I was shocked and dismayed. “You can tell that from my foot?”
“Yes, look at how the veins are sticking up.”
I drew myself up and said with dignity, “Daisy my veins have always stuck out, that’s the way I was born.” Nevertheless at that second I was swearing to myself never to come to work in sockless loafers again.
Meanwhile, immediately every kid in the class started looking at their hands and wrists to see if they could see their own veins. Daisy traced the inside of her wrist, where you could see tiny blue lines.
“I have to tell you the truth, Daisy, you really shouldn’t call people “old.” I said. “I mean, I’m pretty low key about stuff like that but some people might have their feelings hurt.”
“Okay, Mrs. C,” she said. “I understand.”
The next day, not wanting to wear socks in May, I wore a dress so long it covered my feet. But then when I wanted to demonstrate how to sit “criss-cross applesauce” on the carpet I had problems because the dress was getting tangled on my knees and ankles.
There are many times when teaching is a conundrum. Learning to instruct the phonics, classroom management, staying comfortable but not looking weird … it’s all a balancing act. And students know more than you give them credit for. Daisy’s analysis of my foot was definitely higher order thinking, even if I didn’t like her conclusions. I wondered, are other teachers learning similar things about themselves from the students? And how do they handle it?
It doesn’t happen often but on a couple of occasions a parent in my class will say they have decided, after the year is over, to start to home school. I always react with support and happiness as, in general, I believe that child will get a better education than can be provided in a classroom.
- Homeschooling is, in general, a stronger academic platform – that means your children can learn more, faster when they are working at home.
- Homeschooling allows you to create the curriculum that you think your child needs, or to hire someone else to send you the curriculum, to spend extra time on the subjects that are causing trouble, and to move ahead in subjects that are going well.
- Homeschooling frees you from having to be in the same place at the same time every day. It absolutely lowers stress levels.
- Homeschooling provides great social opportunities for both children and parents to build lasting friendships.
- If you know how to build a better mousetrap, you will have the freedom and the time to do so. And so will your children. That means there will be some time to work on you own creativity. And for the kids, there is no better way to get time for them to study music, art, sports, chess, or any other endeavor in which they have a special skill.
- Religious practice in the home is greatly enhanced by the time freed up by homeschooling, and by the central focus given the parents instruction.
- You will know and understand your child in a way that few parents do. When they grow up and leave, you will have the peace of saying, “I truly spent the best time and the most time I could with them.”
So, why aren’t more people home schooling? Because of these three groups who shouldn’t:
- You should not home school if you have something else, such as a career, art endeavor, or hanging out with your friends, that you wish to do more than homeschool. Homeschooling is a job, it is not akin to dropping kids off at the school, you have to report to the kitchen table just about every day and set out the schoolwork, and follow up to make sure it gets done. This can be easy for some parents, and hard for others, but it’s pretty much impossible if the parent doesn’t really want to do it.
- You should not home school if doing so would place your family in a seriously difficult financial situation. What is “seriously difficult?” You’ll have to be the judge. But, as the Bible says, “He (or she) who does not provide for his own family is worse than an unbeliever.” Kids need shelter, transportation, medical care and food first.
- You should not home school if your husband/wife is against it. Even if you deeply want to do it, if you are married, and your spouse is really opposed, in my opinion it’s not worth it. What’s “really opposed?” Again, you be the judge. You’ll know when you know.
In Ancient Rome (200 BC to AD 450) education was predominantly literary and rhetorical. Children were taught how to read and from there memorized large swaths of the best of classical literature. And from there, they devoted the majority of their energy to composing and delivering speeches and other types of rhetorical exercises.
Out of Late Antiquity (AD 450-600), which introduced the trivium, the sequential instruction in grammar, logic and rhetoric for elementary and middle school followed by the and Quadrivium in high school and college which included instruction in arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy, rose Medieval Scholasticism (1100 to 1350) taught in cathedral schools and the medieval university. The emphasis was on practical preparation for the professions, namely, medical doctors, lawyers, and professors of theology.
Italian Renaissance: The humanists pitted themselves against the scholastics’ utilitarian approach because they sought to revive arts and letters (the classical canon of literature and the fine arts) from classical antiquity which they deemed to be superior in scope and content to the content and methods which derived from the period they dubbed “the middle age” between the classical past and their own. They advocated a course of study they dubbed the “studia humanitatis” or the studies of human culture. This was a program that consisted of oratory, poetry, history, moral philosophy with great emphasis on the style and rhetoric of the classical Roman writers. They believed that scholastic logic chopping utterly fails to convince people and there was a need to develop a fine style for the ability to persuade and move people.
By the Victorian era, education for the upper classes of the United Kingdom and America consisted predominantly of the study of the language and literature of Greece and Rome. When this curriculum was marginalized by John Dewey and his education reform movement, Mortimer Adler and Robert Maynard Hutchins created the Great Books movement at Columbia and the University of Chicago in the 1920’s. In creating this rear-guard action to preserve the idea of humanistic education, the Great Books movement created a new, English language canon and methodology (the Socratic maieutic, or round table book discussion group) that removed the need for the study of ancient language.
Modern classical schools movement: in the wake of the “look-say” reading instruction methods and the “whole language” reading programs and their poor success, modern educators and home schoolers (post 1970) have turned back to look for classical methods to teach reading, writing, ancient language, mythology and history. Modern classical schools use a wide range of methods and materials gleaned from classical education history, but the term “classical” remains rather amorphous today when attached to an institution of learning.
I was most pleased with myself for cooking this one up. My first graders have been studying nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Reciting “a noun is a person place or thing” will not do. They have to understand what a noun, verb and adjective really are. This exercise suggested that they randomly use the word types in the same order to create new sentences.
This exercise allowed differentiation in the following ways: First, I could give a goal number of sentences — students could write anywhere from two for the struggling writers to 8 for my speed demons in the ten to fifteen minute block. Second, those with weak vocabulary could just work on getting a sentence put together, while those who were more advanced could work on creating a truly ridiculous sentence. My beginning English learner who barely speaks words yet could simply copy the sentences as they were presented.
I was at teacher training on Thursday, reviewing the techniques of doing a read-aloud book. There was a display table with various quality books for this purpose. Forty-four years after first being read about the billy goats, I felt a shock of recognition, a memory of laughter, happiness, and the freedom of childhood.
Some books have the power to hook the class, and I knew this would one. The sing-song of the repeated phrases, the winning and friendly faces of the billy goats, the horribly ugly but still funny troll – the book is magical.
I went on line and bought another copy right then and there. This would be my third. The first was at my childhood home. The second was in the home where I raised my children. The third would be in my classroom. Where did the other copies go? They were worn out. Some books are worth a second read. Some are worth 5 or ten. But Three Billy Goats Gruff is a lifetime book. Thank you Paul Goldone.
I’m hoping not to be called a hypocrite for still using data after a couple of major beefs with the way data is used! I do use data! And last week the vice principal seemed pleased overall with my whole class intervention plan using istation, in which each student had a current reading level, an intervention strategy, and a goal number for the first of February.
The interventions were as followes: the highest readers would receive extra Accelerated Reader time on the computers, so that they would be able to read independently and check their understanding. Although not the ideal (the ideal would be me talking with them about the books and choosing new ones together) it was what I came up with according to the time and resources available in the classroom.
The next group, who are primarily English Language Learners (ELLs) is receiving what I called oral language intervention, which means that they receive targeted talk with me throughout the day. I “check in” with them more frequently and give them additional chances to speak English.
A third group was given phonics intervention, which meant while other students were reading independently, this group (along with the one below it) would do oral phonics drills of the Orton Gillingham phonics powerpoint. Then they would practice the sight words using a Powerpoint I had made at the start of the year.
The final group would receive, in addition to the phonics intervention, after school tutorials. These tutorials are comprised of phonics drills, phonics games, phonics writing and small reading group time.
Each student is supposed to gain 20 points on their istation score from the first test in September by the end of the year, so I gave each student the goal of gaining at least two points by the start of February.